# Order of evaluation in Microsoft Excel 2019

There is a strict order of operation to be adhered to whenconstructing formulas and functions. The basic order is as follows:

1. Brackets ()
2. Percentage (%)
3. Exponent (^)
4. Division (/)
5. Multiplication (*)
7. Subtraction (-)

This order is termed BODMAS, which stands forbrackets, orders, division, multiplication, addition,subtraction. If you do not specify which part of the formulaExcel must do first, Excel will decide for you based on BODMAS. Next, wewill see an example of a formula that includes the brackets, indicatingthat this part of the formula needs to be calculated first.

Operator precedence is applied when you have differentoperators in a formula—the order is applied by the order of operationusing BODMAS. Here, the formula result is calculated by Excel performingthe multiplication, then the addition, and finally the subtraction ofvalues to arrive at an answer of 41=5 * 9 + 3 -7.

Use the formula = C7 * E7 + G7 – F22 in the cell on the basiccalculation worksheet to test this formula.

Parenthesis or brackets,( ), are used to define the order of theoperations. Enforce precedence means to add thebrackets around certain parts of the formula to indicate that thosecalculations need to be done first. So, to calculate the addition partof the formula first, we would need to place a bracketbefore and after the calculation to indicate that we would like tocomplete this part of the formula first. We now have an entirelydifferent result from the first calculation we performed, so be carefulwhen you are constructing formulas in Excel and make sure you aregetting the result you require!

Once you put =5 * (9 + 3) - 7 as the formula,Excel gives you the answer: 53. So, we use this formulain the cell on the basic calculation worksheet to test thisformula: = C7 * (E7 + G7) – F22.

The difference between a formula and afunction:
Any cell that includes a calculation is a formula. An example of aformula is A22-A45. A function is a named calculation that performs aspecific action such as average, sum, min, max, and so on. An example ofa formula comprising multiple functions is=(sum(A22:B44)+(average(C98:C115)).